Last updated: Dec 3, 2015
The Napoleonic Germany
Establishment of the Confederation of the Rhine
The sixteen territorial rulers of South and West Germany, who left the Empire in July 1806, created the Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund) under the protection of Napoleon I (see the Appendix 1). The Act of the Confederation of the Rhine made all its members sovereign rulers, and put under their Territorial supremacy (Landeshoheit) lands of neighboring Imperial immediate nobles [3: tome VIII; p.480]. The Confederation had an Assembly or Diet consisted of the Council of Kings, which included the Prince-Primate (Note 1), the Kings and Grand Dukes (Note 2); and the Council of Princes, which included Dukes and Princes (Note 3). However, the Confederation of the Rhine did not develop common institutions. "... The act of the Confederation also seemed to hold forth some hope that the new federation might develop a growing community of its German member states. Apart from the presidency of the prince-primate, it mentioned the establishment of two colleges, those of the kings and princes. But the federal act stated that the forms of meetings of these organs, the subjects of their deliberations, and the execution of their decisions were to be determined by the future "fundamental statute." However, the councils of the Rhenish Confederation never met to discuss plans for this fundamental statute. States such as Bavaria and Württemberg were jealously guarding their newly won sovereignty, which in their opinion would have been impaired by the creation of a federal power. They realized, too, that such an authority would be completely controlled by Napoleon... " [1: p.371-372].
Both the Final Recess of the Imperial Deputation of 1803, and the Act of the Confederation of the Rhine of 1806 drastically changed state borders in South and West Germany. However, when the Final Recess redistributed territories, they retained their positions in the framework of the Imperial institutions, including voting rights in the Imperial Assembly, obligations toward Imperial Circles, etc. The Act of the Confederation removed in its member-states the Imperial jurisdiction that protected representative bodies and other local privileges. The rulers, which joined the Confederation, were now free to build unified states ignoring rights of ancient territorial entities. "In former centuries, a new territory was joined to a state by a simple personal union. Existing local laws and institutions, such as estates or law courts, were preserved, and in the central government, an agency was created which dealt with the affairs of the particular territory. But not even the largest state, Bavaria, could possibly have absorbed the large number of heterogeneous new lands in this fashion. Principalities and bishoprics, large and small, abbeys, cities, and estates of imperial knights could not be annexed by the old methods. Nor could one hope to protect historic rights. Everywhere these were completely disregarded. Geographically or economically convenient local and district units were formed and treated as equal parts of the state, though, of course, they might vary in area and population. On the whole, the organization followed the example of the French departements and arrondissements, which had been created for the same reason, to blot out local and provincial diversities and special privileges." [1: p.389]. The abolition of the Imperial institutions affected the nomenclature in titles of the German rulers. In 1806, the rulers of Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt drastically reduced the list of territories mentioned in their titles. Many German rulers followed them: some completely dropped names from their titles; other reduced the usage of full forms.
1. In 1810, Karl von Dalberg (+1817), Prince-Primate of the Confederation, exchanged his Principality of Regensburg for Frankfurt am Main, and became Grand Duke of Frankfurt.
2. Napoleon I introduced the title of Grand Duke (Grossherzog) in Germany for rulers of mid-size states.
3. Several rulers received higher titles when they joined the Confederation of the Rhine: the Elector-Margrave of Baden became Grand Duke, the Langrave of Hesse-Darmstadt became Grand Duke, the Prince of Nassau-Usingen became Duke, the Duke of Berg became Grand Duke, and the Count of Leyen-Hohengeroldseck became Prince.
3. The abolition of the Imperial institutions let other rulers of German lands to disregard local traditions. For example, on September 9, 1806, by the letter patent of the King of Denmark, the Duchy of Holstein, the former member of the Empire united with Denmark only by a personal union, was annexed to the Danish monarchy [3: tome VIII; p.512].
The Mediatization of Imperial Nobility
By the Act of the Confederation, the lesser territorial rulers in South and West Germany, who were not allowed to join the Confederation, lost their status of Imperial immediacy, i.e. were mediatized. The Mediatization (Mediatisierung) did not confiscated possessions of the mediatized nobility, but put their lands under Territorial supremacy of the members the Confederation (see the Appendix 3). Position of the former Imperial knights, an Imperial immediate noble group not represented in the Imperial Assembly, became similar to the one of the territorial nobility. Mediatized noble houses, which by 1806 had enjoyed the status of the Imperial Estate i.e. voted in the Imperial Assembly, received important political privileges that distinguished them from other noble families (Note 1). These noble houses were called Standesherrliche Häuser (Note 2). Officially, Standesherren were considered equal by birth (Ebenbürtigkeit) to the Sovereign Houses of Europe (Note 3). In many German countries, Standesherren had hereditary right to sit in the first chambers of state assemblies (similar to the House of Lords in the British Parliament). In 1825, the Assembly of the German Confederation recognized the predicate of "Most Serene Highness" (Durchlaucht) for the Heads of the Princely houses and in 1829 the predicate of "Most Illustrious Highness" (Erlaucht) for the Heads of the Comital houses (see the Appendix 4).
1. a. "... These who possess extraordinary privileges; they can be subjected only to a particular court of justice ...; they are free from all military service; they may keep a guard of honour: the administration of justice, of police, and the patronage of the churches and schools on their properties, belong to them; they are in possession of all the domains of their properties or sovereignties; the direct taxes levied on their subjects belong to them; their own property is free from direct taxation; they may work mines and salt works, but must deliver the products into the hands of the sovereign. This is the most privileged class." [2: volume I; p.97].
b. "... Bonaparte was shrewd enough to see that by affording some protection to the mediatized houses he would have more control over the sovereigns than if he gave them everything at once. Hence, the price he exacted for the right to annex was the acceptance of federal norms in the treatment of the victims. In contrast to the ecclesiastical estates, which in 1803 had been physically sequestrated and added to the patrimonies of various secular princes, the mediatized domains were merely placed under the sovereignty of the ruling houses. Sovereignty was defined as the right of “legislation, supreme judicial authority; superior police power, and of military conscription, recruitment, and imposts.” It did not include a right to the revenues of the properties or the pre-emption of seignorial and feudal rights, such as local administration of justice or the regulation of manorial facilities: pastures, forests, mines, mills, and the like. As to taxation, the mediatized nobles were to be treated on the same basis as princes of the ruling house; and in criminal cases they were to be tried only by their peers.They were free to maintain residence wherever they pleased within the Confederation or the territory of its allies ..." [8: volume I; p.47].
2. a. The Houses of Bretzenheim, Abensberg-Traun, Ligne and Nostitz were not recognized as Standesherren because they lost their immediate lands and the status of Imperial Estate before July 1806.
b. The Houses of Bentinck, and Croÿ, which did not have the status of Imperial Estate, were also counted among Standesherren.
c. The House of Pappenheim was included in this category, as the Counts of Pappenheim were present in the Imperial Assembly as the Imperial Hereditary Marshall (Reichserbmarschall).
d. In 1803, the Prince of Esterházy acquired Edelstetten from the Prince of Ligne who had an individual voice for this territory in the Council of Princes. The House of Esterházy was counted among Standesherren.
3. From the end of the 19th century, Almanach de Gotha listed Standesherren as one separate group in its second part.
Changes in the Confederation of the Rhine
Immediately after its creation, the Confederation of the Rhine started to gain new members (see the Appendix 2). The first who joined was Ferdinand of Austria, Elector of Würzburg on September 25, 1806. He received the title of Grand Duke, and mediatized possessions of the Count of Ortenburg, and the neighboring Imperial Knights [3: tome VIII; p.510].
The War of the Fourth Coalition (1806–1807) changed the situation in North and East Germany. After the Prussian Army was routed at Jena in October 1806, the French occupied possessions of the King of Prussia and his allies, the Elector of Hesse-Kassel, the Dukes of Brunswick-Wolfenbütel, of Saxony-Coburg-Saalfeld, of Oldenburg, of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, the Prince of Nassau-Orange, etc. In December 1806, in the course of the War, all rulers of the House of Saxony joined the Confederation of the Rhine [3: tome VIII; p.552-555]. There was no Mediatization in North and East Germany (Note 1). In April 1807, twelve lesser rulers of the Houses of Anhalt, Reuss, Lippe, Schwarzburg and Waldeck were admitted to the Confederation of the Rhine [3: tome VIII; p.558, 560, 562, 565, 566]. By the Treaty of Tilsit in July 1807, which ended the War of the Fourth Coalition, the King of Prussia lost a half of his possessions but formally preserved his independence [3: tome VIII; p.637]. The ruling Houses were restored in Oldenburg, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Saxony-Coburg-Saalfeld. The Treaty recognized a new creation of Napoleon, the Kingdom of Westphalia, which would consist of the former possessions of Prussia, Hanover (Note 2), Hesse-Kassel, Brunswick-Wolfenbütel, Nassau-Orange (Note 3), etc.The Elector of Hesse-Kassel, the Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbütel and the Prince of Nassau-Orange were dispossessed. In December 1807, Emperor Napoleon I gave the Kingdom of Westphalia to his brother Hieronymus, who immediately joined the Confederation of the Rhine [3: tome VIII; p.725]. When Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Oldenburg joined the Confederation in 1808, it included maximum number of its members. Only four former members of the Empire preserved their possessions in Germany without joining the Confederation: the Emperor of Austria, the Kings of Prussia, of Sweden, and of Denmark.
In December 1810-January 1811, to support the Continental Blockade, Emperor Napoleon annexed some lands along the North Sea coast to France. As a result, four members of the Confederation were dispossessed: Oldenburg, Arenberg, Salm-Salm and Salm-Kyrburg. The last German free cities, Lübeck, Hamburg, Bremen, were also annexed to the French Empire.
1. a. In 1806-1808, the Houses of Stolberg, Kaunitz, Platen-Hallermund, and Bentheim, which enjoyed the Status of Imperial Estate, lost their position of territorial rulers.
b. Some of the new members received higher titles when they joined the Confederation of the Rhine: the Elector-Duke of Saxony became King, the Princes of Anhalt-Dessau and of Anhalt-Köthen became Dukes, and the Count of Schaumburg-Lippe became Prince.
2. The possessions of the Elector of Hanover were occupied in 1803 by the French, and in January 1806, they were annexed to Prussia. In 1807, the greater part of it was included in the Kingdom of Westphalia, and the remaining part administered by a French governor-general. In 1810, the whole of the former Electorate, except Luneburg, was assigned to Westphalia, but before the end of the year, Napoleon I incorporated North parts of Hanover into the French empire.
3. The Act of the Confederation of the Rhine mediatized some possessions of the Prince of Nassau-Orange in July 1806: Dillenburg, Hadamar, Siegen, Beilstein, Nassau, Diez, Weingarten, Hagnau, etc. The Prince preserved Corvey and Fulda until the War of the Fourth Coalition.
The End of the Confederation of the Rhine
Soon after the catastrophic retreat of Napoleon I from Russia in December 1812, a new anti-French coalition was created in February-March 1813. Austria finally joined the Alliance in August 1813. To mobilize resources of the German lands the Allies were going to enter during the war, they established the Central Administrative Bureau. Karl, Baron of Stein headed it. He suggested treating members of the Confederation of the Rhine as enemies and their territories as conquered. But prevailed another point of view formulated by Klemens, Count of Metternich, the Austrian foreign minister. He preferred not to fight the members of the Confederation but to bring them on the Aliens' side. This helped to save the sovereign status of most members of the Confederation. The first to left the Confederation of the Rhine were the two Dukes of Mecklenburg (March 1813). The next was the King of Bavaria (October 1813). The Battle of the Nations at Leipzig (October 16-19) marked the end of the Napoleonic Germany. In November 1813, Napoleon I crossed the Rhine, and Württemberg, Hesse-Darmstadt, Baden, and the remaining members of the Confederation joined the Allies. In the territories, whose rulers joined the Alliance, the Central Administrative Bureau operated in accordance with the local authorities. The lands of Hanover, Brunswick-Wolfenbütel, Hesse-Kassel and Oldenburg restored to their old rulers, had the same treatment. The German territories annexed by France or held by the rulers that did not join the Allies (the Kingdoms of Saxony and Westphalia, the Grand Duchies of Berg and Frankfurt, the Principalities of Reuss and Isenburg, etc), were governed directly by the Bureau. Some German lands remained under such temporary government until the Congress of Vienna (September 1814-June 1815) decided their fate in the context of the general territorial rearrangements.
Appendix 1. The original members of the Confederation (July 1806)
The Council of Kings:
1. the Prince-Primate of the Confederation (Prince of Regensburg and Aschaffenburg in 1803-1810, Grand Duke of Francfort since 1810);
2. the King of Bavaria;
3. the King of Württemberg;
4. the Grand Duke of Baden;
5. the Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt;
6. the Grand Duke of Berg (Note 1).
The Council of Princes:
7. the Duke of Arenberg;
8. the Duke of Nassau-Usingen;
9. the Prince of Nassau-Weilburg;
10. the Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen;
11. the Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen;
12. the Prince of Salm-Salm;
13. the Prince of Salm-Kyrburg;
14. the Prince of Isenburg-Birstein;
15. the Prince of Liechtenstein;
16. the Prince of Leyen-Hohengeroldseck.
1. In March 1806, Emperor Napoleon I gave the Duchies of Berg and Cleve to Joachim Murat, his brother in-law. When Joachim Murat joined the Confederation, he received the title of Grand Duke of Berg [3: tome VIII; p.422]. In 1808, he became King of Naples and returned the Grand Duchy of Berg to Napoleon I. In 1809, Emperor Napoleon I gave the Grand Duchy to his nephew, Napoleon-Ludwig Bonaparte, Prince of Holland.
Appendix 2. Changes in the Confederation (September 1806-October 1808)
New members who joined the Confederation:
- the Elector of Würzburg (in September),
- the Elector-Duke of Saxony (in December),
- the Duke of Saxony/Saxe-Weimar (in December),
- the Duke of Saxony/Saxe-Gotha (in December),
- the Duke of Saxony/Saxe-Meiningen (in December),
- the Duke of Saxony/Saxe-Coburg (in December),
- the Duke of Saxony/Saxe-Hildburghausen (in December),
- the Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg (in April),
- the Duke of Anhalt-Dessau (in April),
- the Duke of Anhalt-Köthen (in April),
- the Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (in April),
- the Prince of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (in April),
- the Prince of Lippe-Detmold (in April),
- the Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe (in April),
- the Prince of Waldeck (in April),
- the Prince of Reuss-Greiz (in April),
- the Prince of Reuss-Schleiz (in April),
- the Prince of Reuss-Lobenstein (in April),
- the Prince of Reuss-Ebersdorf (in April),
- the King of Westphalia (in December);
- the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (in February);
- the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (in March) and
- the Duke of Oldenburg (in October).
The members of the Confederation dispossessed in December 1810-January 1811:
1. the Duke of Arenberg;
2. the Prince of Salm-Salm;
3. the Prince of Salm-Kyrburg;
4. the Duke of Oldenburg.
Appendix 3. The mediatized Imperial Estates by the Act of the Confederation (July 1806)
- Karl-Ludwig, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Hoym, in Holzapfel and Schaumburg;
- Johann-Nepomuk-Gobert (+1816), Count of Aspremont-Lynden;
- Wilhelm (+1822), Prince of Auersperg;
- Ludwig (+1817), Count of Bentheim-Steinfurt;
- Albrecht-Friedrich-Karl (+1810), Count of Castell-Castell;
- Christian-Friedrich (+1850), Count of Castell-Rüdenhausen;
- Franz-Gundackar (+1807), Prince of Colloredo-Mansfeld;
- Johann-Karl (+1808), Prince of Dietrichstein;
- Albrecht-August-Ludwig (+1851), Count of Erbach-Fürstenau;
- Franz (+1823), Count of Erbach-Erbach;
- Karl (+1816), Count of Erbach-Schönberg;
- Karl-Egon II (+1854), Prince of Fürstenberg;
- Anselm-Maria (+1821), Prince of Fugger-Babenberg (Note 3);
- Friedrich V (+1820), Langrave of Hesse-Homburg (Note 6);
- Ludwig (+1829), Prince of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein;
- Karl-Joseph (+1838), Prince of Hohenlohe-Jagstberg;
- Christian-Friedrich-Karl (+1819), Prince of Hohenlohe-Kirchberg;
- Karl (+1825), Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg;
- Friedrich-Ludwig (+1818), Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen;
- Karl-Albrecht III (+1843), Prince of Hohenlohe-Schillingfürst;
- Ernst-Kasimir III (+1852), Count of Isenburg-Büdingen-Büdingen;
- Karl-Wilhelm-Ludwig (+1832) and Joseph (+1822), Counts of Isenburg-Büdingen-Meerholz;
- Ludwig-Maximilian II (+1821), Count of Isenburg-Büdingen-Wächtersbach;
- Franz-Xaver-Karl-Aloys-Eusebius (+1863), Count of Königsegg-Aulendorf;
- Karl-Friedrich-Wilhelm (+1807), Prince of Leiningen-Hartenburg;
- Wilhelm-Karl (+1809), Count of Leiningen-Güntersblum;
- Wenzel-Joseph (+1825), Count of Leiningen-Heidesheim;
- Marie-Louise-Albertine of Leiningen-Heidesheim (+1818), widow of Landgrave Georg-Wilhelm of Hesse-Darmstadt, in Broich / Bruch (Note 8).
- Christian-Karl (+1811), Count of Leiningen-Westerburg-Altleiningen;
- Karl III (+1813), Count of Leiningen-Westerburg-Neuleiningen;
- Franz-Joseph (+1816), Prince of Lobkowitz;
- Johann-Karl-Ludwig (+1816) and Friedrich-Karl-Gottlieb (+1825), Counts of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg;
- Konstantin (+1814), Prince of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort;
- Joseph-Arnold (+1827), Duke of Looz-Corswarem, Prince of Rheina-Wolbeck;
- Augusta (+1811), Countess of Manderscheid, and Franz-Joseph (+1830), Count of Sternberg, in Schussenried;
- Franz-Georg-Karl-Joseph (+1818), Prince of Metternich;
- Franz-Joseph (+1824), Count of Nesselrode-Reichenstein;
- Johann-Aloys III (+1855), Prince of Oettingen-Spielberg;
- Ludwig-Kraft-Ernst-Karl (+1870), Prince of Oettingen-Oettingen & Oettingen-Wallerstein;
- Johann-Friedrich-Karl-Maximilian (+1809), Count of Ostein;
- Maximilian-Friedrich (+1813), Counts of Plettenberg;
- Otto-Wilhelm (+1829) Count of Quadt-Isny;
- Friedrich (+1865) and Wilhelm-Christian (+1810), Rhine Counts (Rheingrafen) of Grumbach, in Horstmar;
- Franz-Wilhelm (+1831), Prince of Salm-Reifferscheidt-Krautheim;
- Friedrich-Albrecht-Ludwig-Ferdinand (+1851), Prince of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg;
- Friedrich-Karl (+1837), Prince of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohnstein;
- Martin-Richard (+1856), Count of Schäsberg, in Tannheim;
- Karl-Heinrich-Johann-Wilhelm (+1826), Count of Schlitz named Görtz;
- Hugo-Damian-Erwein (+1817), Count of Schönborn, in Wiesentheid and Reichelsberg;
- Joseph-Johann (+1833), Prince of Schwarzenberg;
- Franz (+1834), Counts of Sickingen;
- Prosper (+1822), Prince of Sinzendorf, in Winterrieden;
- Wilhelm-Christian-Karl (+1837), Karl-Ludwig-Wilhelm (+1812), Wihelm-Christoph (+1811), Ludwig-Rudolf-Wilhelm (+1809), Anton-Wilhelm-Friedrich (+1812), Princes of Solms-Braunfels;
- Friedrich-Ludwig-Christian (+1822), Count of Solms-Laubach;
- Karl-Ludwig-August (+1807), Prince of Solms-Lich-Hohensolms;
- Vollrath-Franz-Karl-Ludwig (+1818), Count of Solms-Rödelheim-and-Assenheim;
- Friedrich-Magnus II (+1837), Count of Solms-Wildenfels, in Engelthal;
- Johann-Georg (+1814), Count of Stadion;
- Johann-Wilhelm-Christoph (+1826), Count of Stolberg-Rosla, in Königstein;
- Karl-Alexander (+1827), Prince of Thurn-Taxis;
- Joseph-August (+1826), Count of Törring-Jettenbach, in Guttenzell;
- Franz-Ferdinand (+1827), Prince of Trauttmansdorff, in Umpfenbach;
- Friedrich-Karl (+1830), Count of Walbott-Bassenheim, in Hegbach;
- Joseph-Anton (+1833), Prince of Waldburg-Wolfegg-Waldsee;
- Maximilian-Wunibald (+1818), Prince of Waldburg-Zeil-Trauchburg;
- Eberhard (+1807), Prince of Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach;
- Johann-Ludwig (+1833), Count of Wallmoden, in Neustadt-Gimborn;
- Ludwig (+1818), Count of Wartenberg-Roth;
- Karl-Ludwig-Friedrich-Alexander (+1824), Prince of Wied-Runkel;
- Johann-Karl-August (+1836), Prince of Wied-Neuwied;
- Alfred (+1876), Prince of Windisch-Grätz, in Egloffs (Note 2c).
1. The list includes only rulers who were members of the Houses with the Status of Imperial Estate and Imperial Circle Estate.
2. a.The list does not include so-called "Personalists", the nobles with the status of Imperial Estate who were not represented in Imperial Circle Assemblies. Some of them owned only Imperial immediate territories included in the Imperial Knightly Circles (e.g., Rechberg, Giech, Neipperg, etc.).
b. In April 1804, the Prince of Windisch-Grätz, who used to be a "Personalist", acquired the Imperial immediate Lordship of Egloffs [5: 1944; p.354] that was represented in the Assembly of Imperial Circle of Swabia and the College of Imperial Counts of Swabia of the Imperial Assembly.
c. On 6 Jan 1805, Franz-Ferdinand (+1827), Count of Trauttmansdorff, bought from the Baron of Gudenus the Imperial immediate Lordship of Umpfenbach [5: 1944; p.341] that was not represented in the Imperial Assembly. Umpfenbach, which on 12 Jan 1805 the Emperor elevated Umpfenbach to the rank of the Princely County [9: 1944; p.341], was mediatized in July 1806.
3. In April 1806, the King of Bavaria mediatized lands of Joseph-Sebastian-Eligius, Count of Fugger-Glött, Joseph-Hugo, Count of Fugger-Kirchheim, and Karl-Anton, Count of Fugger-Norndorf, whose possessions were represented in the Assembly of Imperial Circle of Swabia and the College of Imperial Counts of Swabia of the Imperial Assembly.
4. In July 1806, some of territories of Wilhelm-Friedrich, Prince of Nassau-Orange, and Christian-Friedrich, Count of Stolberg-Wernigerode, were mediatized. Nevertheless, they remained sovereign rulers in their other possessions: the Prince of Nassau-Orange in Corvey and Fulda and the Count of Stolberg-Wernigerode in Schwarza.
5. In 1800 Alois (+1826), Baron of Bömelberg, inherited the Immediate imperial Lordship of Gemen, which was represented in the College of the Imperial Counts of Westphalia of the Imperial Assembly and the Assembly of the Imperial Circle of Lower Rhine-Westphalia. The author had not found the confirmation that the Baron of Bömelberg was accepted in the Imperial Assembly and received the Status of the Imperial Estate.
6. The Landgraves of Hesse-Homburg belonged to the House of Hesse, whose Kassel and Darmstadt branches had voices in the Imperial Assembly.
7. In 1804, Nikolaus (+1833), Prince of Esterházy of Galántha, bought from the Prince of Ligne the Imerial immediate Lordship of Edelstetten [5: 1910; p.130], which was represented in the Imperial Assembly. The author had not found the confirmation that the Prince of Esterházy of Galántha was accepted in the Imperial Assembly and received the Status of the Imperial Estate.
8. The Imperial immediacy of the Lordship of Broich / Bruch was limited ("die Herrschaft Bruch oder Broich unter der Oberherrlichkeit des Herzogs von Berg" [7: Abtheilung I; Band I; p.348]).
9. The Imperial immediate Lordship of Limpurg, represented represented in the Assembly of Imperial Circle of Franconia and the College of Imperial Counts of Franconia of the Imperial Assembly, was mediatized in July 1806. Limpurg belonged to had been divided by several noble familes with the Status of Imperial Estate. The list of co-owners included: Friedrich-Ludwig-Christian (+1814), Count of Rechteren; Friedrich (+1811), Count of Pückler; the members of the Houses of Sayn-Wittgenstein, Salm-Grumbach, Leiningen, Isenburg, Waldeck, Solms, etc. [4: tome III; chapitre VIII; tables 94, 176, 179].
10. The Lordship of Styrum, which was mediatized in July 1806, belonged to Ernst-Maria (+1809), Count of Limburg-Styrum from the Styrum branch of the Limburg-Styrum House. Before its extinction in 1800, the Gemen branch of the House owned the Imperial immediate Lordship of Gemen represented in the College of the Imperial Counts of Westphalia of the Imperial Assembly and the Assembly of the Imperial Circle of Lower Rhine-Westphalia.
Appendix 4. The Standesherrliche Häuser recognized in the German states
1 Ducal and Princely Houses:
- Arenberg (Austria, Prussia, Hanover);
- Auersperg (Austria);
- Bentheim-Bentheim (Austria, Prussia, Hanover);
- Bentheim-Steinfurt (Austria, Prussia, Hanover);
- Bentheim-Tecklenburg-Rheda (Austria, Prussia, Hanover);
- Colloredo-Mannsfeld (Austria, Württemberg);
- Croÿ (Austria, Prussia);
- Dietrichstein (Austria, Württemberg);
- Esterhazy of Galantha (Austria, Bavaria);
- Fürstenberg (Austria, Württemberg, Baden, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen);
- Fugger-Babenhausen (Austria, Bavaria);
- Hohenlohe-Langenburg (Austria, Württemberg);
- Hohenlohe-Öhringen (Austria, Württemberg);
- Hohenlohe-Kirchberg (Austria, Württemberg);
- Hohenlohe-Bartenstein (Austria, Württemberg);
- Hohenlohe-Jagstberg (Austria, Württemberg);
- Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst (Austria, Bavaria, Württemberg);
- Isenburg-Birstein (Austria, Hesse-Kassel, Hesse-Darmstadt);
- Kaunitz-Rietberg (Austria, Prussia);
- Khevenhuller-Metsch (Austria);
- Leiningen (Austria, Bavaria, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt);
- Leyen (Austria, Baden);
- Lobkowitz (Austria);
- Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg (Austria, Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt);
- Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort (Austria, Bavaria,Würtemberg, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt);
- Looz-Corswarem (Austria, Prussia, Hanover);
- Metternich (Austria);
- Öttingen-Spielberg (Austria, Bavaria, Württemberg);
- Öttingen-Wallerstein (Austria, Bavaria, Württemberg);
- Rosenberg (Austria);
- Salm-Salm (Austria, Prussia);
- Salm-Kyrburg (Austria, Prussia);
- Salm-Horstmar (Austria, Prussia);
- Salm-Reifferscheidt-Krautheim (Austria, Baden);
- Salm-Reifferscheidt-Raitz (Austria);
- Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (Austria, Prussia);
- Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein (Austria, Prussia, Württemberg);
- Schönburg-Waldenburg (Austria, Saxony);
- Schönburg-Hartenstein (Austria, Saxony);
- Schwarzenberg (Austria, Bavaria, Württemberg);
- Solms-Braunfels (Austria, Prussia, Württemberg, Hesse-Darmstadt);
- Solms-Lich (Austria, Prussia, Württemberg, Hesse-Darmstadt);
- Starhemberg (Austria);
- Thurn-Taxis (Austria, Bavaria, Württemberg, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen);
- Trauttmansdorff (Austria);
- Waldburg-Wolfegg-Waldsee (Austria, Württemberg);
- Waldburg-Zeil-Trauchburg (Austria, Bavaria, Württemberg);
- Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach (Austria, Bavaria, Württemberg);
- Wied (Austria, Prussia, Nassau);
- Windisch-Grätz (Austria, Württemberg);
2. Comital Houses:
- Bentinck (recognized in 1845);
- Castell-Remlingen (Bavaria);
- Castell-Rudenhausen (Bavaria);
- Erbach-Erbach (Bavaria, Württemberg, Hesse-Darmstadt);
- Erbach-Wartenberg-Roth (Bavaria, Württemberg, Hesse-Darmstadt);
- Fugger-Kirchberg-Weissenhorn (Württemberg);
- Fugger-Glött (Bavaria);
- Fugger-Kirchheim (Bavaria);
- Fugger-Nordendorf (Bavaria, Württemberg);
- Giech (Bavaria);
- Harrach (Austria);
- Isenburg-Philippseich (Hesse-Darmstadt);
- Isenburg-Büdingen (Hesse-Kassel, Hesse-Darmstadt);
- Isenburg-Büdingen-Meerholz (Württemberg, Hesse-Kassel, Hesse-Darmstadt);
- Königsegg-Aulendorf (Württemberg);
- Küfstein (Austria);
- Leiningen-Billigheim (Baden);
- Leiningen-Neudenau (Baden);
- Leiningen-Westerburg-Altleiningen (Hesse-Darmstadt);
- Leiningen-Westerburg-Neuleiningen (Nassau);
- Neipperg (Württemberg);
- Ortenburg (Bavaria);
- Pappenheim (Bavaria);
- Platen-Hallermund (Hanover);
- Plettenberg (Württemberg);
- Pückler-Limpurg (Württemberg);
- Quadt (Württemberg);
- Rechberg (Württemberg);
- Rechteren-Limpurg (Bavaria);
- Schäsberg (Württemberg);
- Schlitz genannt Görtz(Hesse-Darmstadt);
- Schönborn-Wiesentheid (Bavaria);
- Schönborn-Buchheim (Austria, Bavaria);
- Schönburg-Hinterglauchau (Saxony);
- Schönburg-Rochsburg (Saxony);
- Schönburg-Wechselburg (Saxony);
- Solms-Laubach (Hesse-Darmstadt);
- Solms-Rödelheim (Hesse-Kassel, Hesse-Darmstadt);
- Solms-Wildenfels (Hesse-Darmstadt);
- Stadion (Austria, Württemberg);
- Stadion-Thannhausen (Bavaria);
- Sternberg-Manderscheid (Austria, Württemberg);
- Stolberg-Wernigerode (Prussia, Hanover, Hesse-Darmstadt);
- Stolberg-Stolberg (Prussia, Hanover);
- Stolberg-Rossla (Prussia, Hesse-Darmstadt);
- Törring (Württemberg);
- Waldbott-Bassenheim (Württemberg, Bavaria, Nassau);
- Waldeck-Pyrmont (Württemberg);
- Wallmoden-Gimborn (Mecklenburg);
- Wurmbrand (Austria).
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